Globe Vulcan (Central Vulcan) Chimneys & Wicks

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 WICKS TO FIT  THE   HEATERS LISTED BELOW - AND MORE!

Unique Specialty wicks
for 19th Century lamps

 


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      Wicks for virtually every heater, stove and lamp made since 1850

Wild & Wessel

Globe Vulcan (Central Vulcan) Chimneys & Wicks
16''', 18''', 24''' & 30'''

W&W Patents, W&W Imperial, Side Draft, Center Draft, Kosmos,
"Search lamp," Flame Spreaders
History, W&W advertisements
W&W Agni Brenner chimneys

For shipping out of the US extra postage is required. Click here.

Photos of W&W Central Vulcan Burners (click)

Some history of Catterson's (click)

Registered Design Numbers For British Lamps

Emil Wild was perhaps the most brilliant lamp engineer who ever lived.  His designs were exceptionally clean burning and by far the most versatile of any lamp created.  The 18''', for example, was made as a true Kosmos wick side draft with a flat wick (the Imperial burner), a circular wick side draft and a circular wick central draft (Globe/Central Vulcan) and a 20''' Kosmos version with a thimble flame spreader (Agni-Brenner) sold in Europe, all of which used the same chimney!  

The 30''' Globe Vulcan was perhaps the ultimate "White Light" burner, a lamper's dream furnace, producing incredible light as well as heat.

In Germany, these were labeled "Central Vulkan" lamps,  in the UK "Globe Vulcan".

Dimensions of: 14''' 16''' 18''' 24''' 30''' 50'''
Wick width 1 7/16" 1 3/4" 1 7/8" 2 1/4" 2 3/4" ?
Chimney Base 2" 2 1/4" 2 7/16" 2 3/4" 3 1/8" 3 7/8"

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Wild & Wessel of Berlin developed the "Kosmos" burner in 1865, where a flat-wick is formed round. By the early 1880's their absolutely perfected Kosmos burner was being imported into the US as the "Imperial" burner by B&H; in England it was imported by Catterson as a center or side-draft draft burner  as the "Globe Vulcan" burner using a post-style flame spreader and a unique wick.  In the US, the Imperial burner may have been used as a replacement for a duplex burner originally fitted on the lamp. Most of the lamps using the Imperial/Vulcan burners were table lamps, but a few were large, elegant banquet lamps.  My 1884 B&H Imperial is shown at right.  Other Vulcan lamps and burners are shown on the lamp photo page, lower right  column.

The Wild & Wessel Imperial/Vulcan chimney was very unusual, with a wasp-waist below a tall flame spreader.  Without the correct flame spreader and chimney, these lamps burn poorly at best.  With the correct flame spreader, wick and chimney, they burn magnificently! The Imperial 18''' was a true Kosmos wick style, 3 5/8" flat wick, yet was a Vulcan using the 18''' Vulcan chimney. The 18''' "Central" Vulcan burners were EITHER side draft OR center draft but used the same wick and chimney. The reason for the side draft Central Vulcan burners was so they could be used on glass and fancy fonts where a draft tube was impossible. Absolutely nobody but Wild & Wessel had three different configurations for the same flame spreader and chimney. No other chimney will work on this lamp to produce a decent burn except the original design...chimneys and wicks have not been available for many decades - until now!!!  These chimneys are made from borosilicate glass in a mold made from a signed original 1884 W&W chimney.  Alex Marrack makes reproduction flame spreaders so there is no excuse for not burning these magnificent lamps.  (For more on these lamps, click here.)

Vulcan chimneys made from tempered borosilicate glass!!!!

Globe Vulcan 16'''_Chimney, side draft and center draft for Central Vulcan and Globe Vulcan lamps.

2.280'' fitter (57.91mm), 11.5'' tall
Special wasp-waist as per the original German design by Emil Wild.
Thickness:  2/32"
Glass weight:  5.1 oz.
Shipping wt:  1 lb.
Made in USA of
fully annealed heat resistant borosilicate glass
Near right, chimney on W&W 18''' Central Vulcan.

  <<<16''' Central Vulcan burning

16''' Globe/Central Vulcan chimney - $41.95

Imperial / Globe Vulcan 18''' Chimney, side draft and center draft for Central Vulcan and Globe Vulcan lamps. (Also fits some 20''' Agni-Brenner lamps (see below).  Check the base height if you have a 20''' Agni burner.  An 18''' Vulcan has the disk 1.043'' to 1.172'' above the draft tube. The height to the pinch in the chimney is 1.692'', so the flame spreader disk is about 0.640'' above the pinch in the chimney.)

2 7/16" fitter (2.412", 62mm), 11 1/2" tall
Special wasp-waist as per the original German design by Emil Wild.
Thickness:  2/32"
Glass weight:  5.1 oz.
Shipping wt:  1 lb.
Made in USA of
fully annealed heat resistant borosilicate glass
Near right, chimney on W&W 18''' Central Vulcan.

For shipping out of the US extra postage is required. Click here.
(Limit one chimney per order/per package, but lamp wicks can be included.)

Imperial, Globe/Central 18''' Vulcan Chimney - $41.95
IN STOCK

Globe Vulcan 24''' Chimney

2.841" fitter (72.17mm), 12 1/4" (311mm) tall
Special wasp-waist as per the original German design by Emil Wild.
Thickness:  0.060" - 1.55mm
Glass weight:  7.4 oz.
Shipping wt:  2 lb.
Made in USA of
fully annealed heat resistant borosilicate glass

Click on the image at right to expand it to see the chimney and measurements.

THE FIRST NEW VULCAN CHIMNEYS IN MANY DECADES, AND MADE FROM HEAT-RESISTANT BOROSILICATE GLASS.

24''' Globe Vulcan Chimney - $54.95

Globe Vulcan 30''' Chimney

3.182" fitter (80..82mm), 12 5/8" (321mm) tall
Special wasp-waist as per the original German design by Emil Wild.
Thickness:  0.060" - 1.55mm
Glass weight:  8.5 oz.
Shipping wt:  2 lb.
Made in USA of
fully annealed heat resistant borosilicate glass

Click on the image at right to expand it to see the chimney and measurements.

THE FIRST NEW VULCAN CHIMNEYS IN MANY DECADES, AND MADE FROM HEAT-RESISTANT BOROSILICATE GLASS.

Extra postage required for shipping out of the United States.

30''' Globe Vulcan Chimney - $59.95

Out-of-US_Postage REQUIRED

And number of chimneys per_order.

Central Vulcan Chimneys (Limit ONE chimney per order/per package, but lamp wicks can be included.)  Out-of-US delivery, add to your shopping cart, please.

$5.00

Chimneys are well protected in sturdy boxes for safely shipping without breakage, but that weight combined with postage rate increases for boxed items that went into effect on Jan. 18, 2016, mandate an extra charge for out-of-US mailing.

Vulcan Wicks

Custom, hand-made Wicks for W&W Vulcan lamps, either side or bottom draft
(Note: It is extremely time consuming to produce these wicks - quantities are therefore limited.)
The unique 2- or 3-tailed Vulcan wicks were apparently designed for maximum safety when burning the fuel available in the 1880's and 1890's, which varied considerably in volatility.  The wick design seals the font from the burner, preventing any problems with hot fuel vapors igniting and causing a self-sustaining burn. This allowed Emil Wild to design the Vulcan burner for maximum light output, which also meant maximum heat output.

Note:  The twin-tailed Vulcan wicks are also used in some Wild & Wessel lamps were were NOT Vulcans!  There was a ''Central-Brenner'' which had a very small flame spreader and used a Kosmos-style pinched chimney.

14''' W&W 14' Central Vulcan, draft tube 0.682" (2 tails) $17.95

16''' W&W 16''' Central Vulcan, draft tube 0.082' (2 tails) $17.95

18''' W&W 18''' Central Vulcan, draft tube 0.98" , 0.092" thick (2 tails) $17.95

24''' W&W 24''' Central Vulcan wick  (3 tails) $29.95

30''' W&W 30''' Central Vulcan wick   (3 tails) $29.95

30''' W&W "Search" center draft 30''' lamp made in Germany.  1.480" draft tube. Circular wick. $15.95

30''' Wild & Wessel 30' Kosmos Vulcan. 48mm outer tube, 38mm draft tube.  Flat wick. $15.95

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My custom wicks are made using original wicks as samples for diameter, width, and thickness of the burning section as well as thickness of the "tails" for proper capillary action to sustain a full burn as originally designed.  They do not look the same as original Vulcan wicks because that is impossible without the original looms, but they fit and function just as well as the original wicks.

24''' W&W Central Vulcan wicks >>>>>

Catterson 18''' Globe Vulcan

Perfectly even flame with custom wick.

Above, Rob Gregor's 18''' Central Vulcan with full curl burn with my custom wick.

Alex Marrack's test of the my 18''' Central Vulcan wick:  "Yes, it is 'as good as old' .. worked to the bottom of the fount without flagging flame or burnback of the wick."

W&W Patents

The first W&W Vulkan patent was applied for on Dec. 8, 1881.  Note there as a flame spreader.  The Henkle US patent for a flame spreader is dated Jan. 15, 1884.  L&B could well have had a post-type flame spreader in 1879 for center draft lamps and a thimble style flame spreader for Kosmos Matador burners in 1879.

This patent drawing has a 6-tailed wick.  I have  not seen any examples of this wick or burner, but they may exist in private collections.  This patent was modified in 1884 for a 2-tailed wick (see below).

 

At right, the 1884 modification of the 6-tailed wick to a 2-tailed wick dated 1884.  This patent is for a side draft "Central Vulcan" burner.  The wick carrier has the distinctive wick "pockets" for the tails, and the base of the carrier is solid and holds the bottom of the gear toothed lift rod.  Note also the unique safety feature of Central Vulcan burners:  the wick tails go through slots in the bottom of the burner and the circular section of wick above the tails seals off the font.  Fuel in the 1880's was of variable quality and some fuel was quite volatile.

Below we can see why the Imperial burner marketed in the US was not called an Imperial-Vulcan.  The German patent for the Imperial Vulcan is dated July, 1888, 4 years after the Imperial was sold in the US.

W&W listing in the 1911 Goldberg catalog.

Click on the images to enlarge them.

German Patent application of Dec. 28, 1884 for a Vulcan chimney.

American patent  for Imperial Kosmos, Aug. 19, 1884 Patent application for Kosmos Vulkan dated July 16, 1888. 

W&W_advertisements, 1906 Goldberg catalog (Click images to enlarge in a separate window.)

The Kosmos-Vulcan appears to be the same burner as sold in the US as the Imperial, but the Imperial was only sold in 18''' size. These lamps used the unique Vulcan chimney and a flat wick turned round, Kosmos style. In essence, the top of the burner was Vulcan, the bottom was Kosmos. The Central-Vulkan above left was a side-draft  burner with a Vulcan post-type flame spreader and used a 2-tailed Vulcan wick.  The Agni burner was shaped differently and is shown with a thimble flame spreader and used a flat wick Kosmos style. The Agni also had a wick guide, unlike the Kosmos-Vulkan at left. Vulkan-Universallampes were true center draft designs but used a 2-tailed Vulcan wick  (14''', 16''' & 18''') or 3 tailed wick (24''' & 30''') with a post-type flame spreader and Vulcan chimney. All had wick guides with ''pockets'' below the burner. This burner was also used on fancier true center draft fonts, unlike the burners at left.

Wick Knobs

Knob from 16''' Agni

Catterson Vulcan knob

R.V. Vulcan knob

Universallampe knob

Kosmos-Vulcan 30''' knob

Imperial knob

"Search" knob

16''' Vulkan knob

 

First, my latest Central Vulkan, a 16''' side draft.

More W&W Vulcan Burners are below

Wick knob with "Central Vulkan" spelling but intended for sale in the UK.  The D.R. Patent of 18574 indicates the lamp was made in the latter part of 1884.  This lamp does not have the "Catterson" plate, so it most likely pre-dates the UK import agreement between W&W and Catterson.  The burner on this lamp is so perfect after 131 years that is provides a terrific example of how the burner was made (see below). (Photo of glass insert font, click here.)

16''' Lamp assembled

 

Outer wick tube

Note the seam inside the tube.  The tubes were flat stock formed round, not drawn tubes!

The outer wick tube at right covers the assembly above.

Polished so well there is no visible seam on the outside of the tube!

Wick would be lowered in the photo above. Notice the position of the wick guide clips and complexity/quality build.

The photo above shows the wick sleeve raised. The burner then fits into the glass insert font > (shown here without the gallery installed).

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More W&W Vulcan Burners

RV Importe Burner parts, a 16''' side draft Central Vulcan

16''' RV Importe - new wick installed

Made by Wild & Wessel for
Robert & Villette, Paris & Bordeaux

Wild & Wessel 14''' Globe Vulcan, center draft

W&W 16''' Central Vulcan, side draft

W&W 18''' Central Vulcan, side draft

Wild & Wessel 14''' Globe Vulcan, center draft, parts and original wick.

16''' Globe Vulcan burner (side draft) with unusual bayonet fitter for Brit Duplex fonts.

W&W Agni-Brenner 20''' side draft, a form of Vulcan using an 18''' Vulcan chimney

Right when you assume you have all the variations of Wild & Wessel lamps figured out, W&W throws in some odd ones.  Near right is a 14''' Globe Vulcan with an Agni-Brenner flame spreader without a post - a straight thimble flame spreader!

Far right is a 20''' Agni-Brenner with a Vulcan post-type flame spreader!  The Agni-Brenner is a true Kosmos style using a 3 9/16" thick,flat wick, uses an 18''' Vulcan chimney, but unlike the Imperial has a wick carrier.

These two variations are not supposed to exist.

Center Draft    

W&W 18''' Central Vulcan, center draft. Note bottom of draft tube is open. With lift gallery.

W&W 18''' Central Vulcan, center draft.

W&W 18''' Central Vulcan, center draft, showing wick pockets

30''' W&W Central Vulcan side draft; bottom of draft tube closed.

30''' W&W Central Vulcan center draft.

30''' W&W Central Vulcan side draft.

30''' W&W Globe Vulcan center draft burner, apart, showing the wick pockets on the wick sleeve.  Vulcan wicks are unlike any other center draft lamp wicks, but I can make them.

The photo above shows the slots for the 3 tails of the wick. The tails fit first though the slots above, then on down through the pockets shown at left.  The flame spreader support is visible in the draft tube.

30''' Globe Vulcan burner assembled. Note this is a true center draft  burner requiring a draft tube.

The 30''' Globe Vulcan could be used in a heater body (left) or as a lamp (right). It burns so brightly the camera was overwhelmed by the light.

Lamp owned and photographed by Rob Gregor.  Click on the photos to enlarge them.

30''' Kosmos Vulcan

This series of 30''' Vulcan burners show the incredible genius of Emil Wild.  The burners above use the unique 3-tailed Vulcan wick in both side draft and center draft versions.  The side draft Vulcan burns above are not Kosmos burners because they have a tubular top section of wick above the 3 tails.

Below right is a 30''' Kosmos Vulcan burner which uses a very wide, thick flat wick. The burner details are shown.

The next section below shows a real center draft Vulcan burner (sold under the "Search" label) using a tubular wick. And all of these  30''' Vulcan burners use the same flame spreader and require the wasp-waist 30''' Vulcan chimney.

<<<

30''' Kosmos Vulcan wick knob

>>>

30''' Kosmos Vulcan burner

Bottom of 30''' Kosmos Vulcan burner.

Burner markings show this lamp was intended for the French and British market.  The British patent number indicates manufacture in 1884.

Burner with sleeve at left removed, showing the unique perforated inside tube.

18''' Imperial Vulcan

At right is my B&H "Imperial" lamp.  The contrasting colors - bottom polished brass, center silver, top polished brass - are highlighted beautifully. 

The Imperial burner unit is a Kosmos-Brenner type flat wick burner using a 3 5/8" wide wick. This is a rare non-circular wick B&H lamp with a drop-in fount. It was apparently sold with a duplex wick burner and retrofitted with an Imperial burner made by Wild & Wessel in Berlin, Germany. 

Now that a marked 30''' Kosmos Vulcan has surfaced (above) which is essentially a scaled up version of the Imperial burner, it can be stated with certainty that the Imperial burner marmeted in the US really is a Vulcan burner.

Imperial/Vulcan Flame Spreader

Flame spreader in burner

"Tulip" flame shape

Rare original Imperial Vulcan chimney

Another Imperial

This lamp appears to have been entirely made by W & W rather than being a burner adapted to a duplex lamp font.  The burner is larger and heavier than the B&H Imperial's burner (above) with the same patent date.  The font is cast brass, not turned or formed.  It is heavy.  This lamp was sold by "SHREVE CRUMP & LOW MFG CO BOSTON" as marked on a brass plate on the bottom of the font: the company was founded before the Revolution and is still in business.

This lamp is illustrated wearing one of my Imperial/Vulcan chimneys and an Alex Marrack flame spreader.

The flame spreaders for these lamps have been almost always lost over the years.  Precise new flame spreaders made to original specifications are available from Alex Marrack in England.

I now have new Vulcan chimneys!

30''' "Search" Center Draft Vulcan

This 30''' Search burner is a true center draft burner using a conventional tubular wick of the exact same diameter as a 30''' Central or Globe Vulcan burner.  It is the exact opposite of the 30''' Kosmos Vulcan above.  This huge burner weighs almost a pound by itself! 

Though not signed as a W&W burner, the gallery is the same as other 30''' Vulcan burners and the techniques of using flat stock formed round instead of tubing; soldering so precise the solder line is only visible with a magnifier on the inside surface of parts, and the same gear track as the 30''' Vulcan burner above demonstrates this is a W&W burner.

Globe Vulcan lamp size comparison

Left to right above, 14''' Catterson center draft Globe Vulcan with Agni draft tube and flame spreader. 16''' Central Vulcan side draft burner, "R V Importe" for the French market, in 20''' L&B side draft font.  18''' Central Vulcan center draft in copper W&W Universallampe font.  30''' Central Vulcan in W&W Universallampe font.  From my collection.

Fuel for Globe & Central Vulcan lamps

I burn mineral spirits (LOMS) or a combination of 50% kerosene and 50% mineral spirits in my Globe Vulcan lamps. With the Vulcan design burners, Emil Wild took capillary action to the extreme, really stressing the ability of the wick to supply the burner with sufficient fuel to produce the white light flame. LOMS is thinner and more volatile than kerosene and therefore has better `'wicking'' ability than pure kerosene and can properly feed to the top of the wick in a Vulcan. Kerosene is thicker and the result is fuel starvation which causes the wick to burn down much faster than when burning LOMS or a combination of LOMS and kerosene.

Dimensions of Vulcan Chimneys

For reference, here are the dimensions for 14''' and 16''' Vulcan chimneys.  These original, signed chimneys are from my own collection.  I also have an original 12'' Vulcan chimney. If there is any interest I could have the 12''' and 14''' Vulcan chimneys replicated in borosilicate glass.  Email me if interested.

Indicia detail on lamp shown at left.  Click photo to enlarge it. The measurements on the two chimneys shown can be read more easily by clicking on each photo to enlarge them.

 

Wild & Wessel lamp exports, US and UK Globe Vulcan by Catterson's

As mentioned above, Wild & Wessel of Berlin in 1865 developed the "Kosmos" burner.  Emil Wild was an undoubted genius at lamp designs.  His August 19, 1884 design for a burner with a flame spreader was sold in the US as an "Imperial" brand and in the UK under the "Vulcan" brand name (The Imperial patent was granted to Emil Wild of Berlin, Gemany, the assignor was Bennett B. Schneider of Orange, NJ.).  The unique chimney for that burner was also patented by Emil Wild.  Unfortunately, Emil Wild was apparently not an astute businessman.  From what I can determine, Wild had an exclusive import arrangement with Bradley & Hubbard in the US and Catterson's in the UK,  yet failed to put a performance clause in either contract.  B &H was far more concerned with marketing their new line of center draft lamps than trying to market the more expensive, exquisite Imperial burner.  And Catterson's in the UK was more interested in selling lamps in their London department store than actually working as a wholesale agent for the Vulcan line of lamps - to the point their Vulcan lamps actually had their own badge on the burner! (There are supposedly Vulcan lamps found in the UK without the Catterson's badge, so they apparently did some wholesale business.)  Thus Imperial and Vulcan lamps are quite rare, which is a real shame because they were one of the cleanest burning lamp designs ever produced.

AGNI VERSUS VULCAN

W&W Vulcan chimneys appear to be the same as W&W Agni chimneys.  They are NOT the same.  The main dimensional change is the Agni chimney has a shorter height to the pinch.  Antonio Cota Fevereiro of Lisbon, Portugal, has contributed the magnificent photos and drawings below to show the difference in the two chimneys.  The Vulcan chimney has a base-to-pinch height 3cm (1.18") higher than the Agni, and an 18''' Vulcan chimney is 47mm (1.85") taller than a 20''' Agni chimney.  Click on the images below to enlarge them. 

Please note there were exceptions!  After Hugo Schneider purchased W&W in about 1902 they would apparently make up lamps with parts at hand.  I own a 14''' signed Globe Central Vulcan lamp with a factory-installed Agni flame spreader, and Collin in the UK has two 20''' Agni lamps with Vulcan flame spreaders!  If you need to know if your Agni will accept a Vulcan chimney, refer to the detailed measurements shown above and measure your lamp from the chimney base to the disk on the flame spreader.

Flame Spreaders

W&W Imperial Flame Spreader.  This 18''' flame spreader was used on most 18''' Vulcan lamps whether side draft, center draft or Kosmos, varying only in size from 14''' to 30'''. 

W&W Agni flame spreader with a post, but variations exist which are straight thimble flame spreaders as on my 14'''  true center draft Catterson Central Vulcan, shown above.

Chimneys

Composite from the W&W 1902 catalog

Left ^ 18''' Vulcan; Right, 20''' Agni

`

20'''' Agni left, 18''' Vulcan right

18''' Vulcan left, 20'' Agni right

Superimposed, Vulcan chimney in red. Note the pinch in the Vulcan chimney is noticeably narrower than the Agni.

Antonio noted "The Agni chimney works perfectly with Matador burners. The Matador chimney does not work with the Agnis, rather tricky..."

History

Some history of Catterson's as generously supplied by Rob Gregor in Australia

SP Catterson & Sons (Summarised version):-

Address was the Globe Lamp works, 87 to 89 Newington Causeway, Worthing, London SE1.

The Firm traded as "Lamp Manufacturers and Importers/Exporters" and their primary product line was Paraffin/Petroleum Lamps and Stoves. From the mid 1880's they exclusively sold limited quantities of the Wild & Wessel Lamps to one of the large London Department Stores and apparently had a small wholesale business in lamps as well.

They also had a smaller operation in Liverpool and that branch was called "The American Light Co" and it sold "Electrical Apparatus and Appliances".

In the 1930's, large sections of the UK economy were suffering contraction as a result of the "Great Depression" and Catterson's relatively narrow market segment had also contracted. Thus not only were they operating in a difficult economic environment but at that time they also became subject to serious and ongoing fraud by their head Cashier.

The fraud continued for at least 3 years due to inadequate internal controls and after it was finally detected and the culprit duly punished, it also resulted in a Court Case between Catterson's and their regular Auditors, in which they claimed the Auditors had been negligent by not detecting the fraud earlier.

It was noted by the Court that their Auditors had earlier advised Catterson's Directors on their business lacking adequate financial controls and they had also recommended a number of changes be made, but those were not put in place.

The following sequence of events is generally considered to have been the major factors in the business failure and they entered liquidation in 1937.
 

Contributing Factors

Catterson's, like many firms of their time, had underestimated the impact and the duration of the Western Worlds recession and they were also reluctant or unable to undertake rapid and significant restructuring. The financial cost from the long period of fraud was also significant and they then faced substantial costs from an unsuccessful Court Battle.

Court Decision (in summary):

SP Catterson & Sons [1937] 81 Acct LR 62

http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.Thhr.gifCourt stated:
Held in Auditors' favour
It was not part of their duties to tell directors how to run the business and they had no power to insist that their recommended changes were put into operation

(NOTE:  The above article contains items which may be of interest to those who collect Wild & Wessel and Globe Vulkan Lamps but it is not meant as a complete history of SP Catterson & Sons PL. Should anyone have more complete detail, this will be welcomed.)

Above, Rob Gregor's fabulous 18''' Arts & Crafts style W&W lamp. 

Photo by Rob Gregor.

Original wick in the burner.

Photo by Rob Gregor.

 

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