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Beginning Lamp Restoration
Citric Acid Bath, Cleaning
wick sleeves & draft tubes,
Cleaning flame spreaders, Font repair
(For disassembly help, see removed lamp burners
and flame spreaders
here. If the
burner has bent or damage parts they must be repaired before
wick installation is attempted.)
So, you just purchased a "new" center draft
lamp. The lamp was undoubtedly made during the Victorian Era
and thus is
well over a century ago. In all probability the lamp has not been
used in decades. Kerosene fuel precipitates paraffin (wax)
and as it slowly evaporates it leaves a very sticky, gummy
residue almost like varnish. Even though there is a rush of
excitement to get the lamp into operation, the lamp should be
thoroughly disassembled and cleaned, yet in many cases the lamp
parts are literally "glued" together.
DO NOT FORCE ANYTHING TO MOVE! Do not try to
remove a burner that is glued to the font. Burners are
fragile and parts have not been made in a century, so carefully
cleaning before use is virtually mandatory if you expect the lamp
to work properly for another century. Read the article below
to see how to remove a burner without damage, as shown at
right when a fragile burner is crushed trying to remove it
without first softening and dissolving the old, dried fuel
Wax melts at about 160 F and old varnish and fuel residue
become considerably softer at 180 F. Boiling water is 212 F.
That is the starting point of disassembly. Let me give you
This Veritas lamp had been in storage for a
century. The shade ring arms needed to be re-soldered
and the the entire lamp polished. At this point it could
be hung in it's frame, as intended, but it is only for
decoration so far. The photo at right
was taken after initial assembly and a very minor polish job.
This involved some minor soldering and polishing with "Blue
Magic Metal Polish Cream" until the buffing rag no longer
removed dark tarnish. It is now pretty, but it is NOT a
lamp at this point in time.
In the case of this particular lamp, the burner was easy to
unscrew, so that was my starting point.
The burner could not be disassembled further because the threads
were stuck. If the burner had not unscrewed easily, I would have
used a large old stock pot
I found cheap at a junque shop and boiled the entire lamp.
[Note: If you absolutely cannot find a stock pot
large enough to hold an entire lamp with burner attached, a heat
gun or hair dryer on high setting can be pointed directly at the
burner threads and that joint heated until it begins to smoke,
then while wearing leather gloves it may be possible to unscrew
the burner. That does nothing for the junk inside the burner
or the font, so boiling is still required, but it does result in
smaller pieces so a smaller boiling pot is needed. Boiling the
entire lamp is still my preferred method of softening residue so a
burner can be removed.]
The burner was placed in the stock pot
shown at right, covered with water, and a quarter cup of
liquid laundry detergent added, and the water boiled. This is a smelly
project best done outside. An
Original Haller stove from
the 1890's need not be used, but it did seem proper (if a
little nutty) to use a Victorian era German stove (Ottensen)
to boil the Victorian era German (Nurenburg) lamp burner.
The old wax and dissolved fuel residue floats to the
surface of the water and is poured off. Then, while wearing
leather gloves because the burner was still hot, the parts of the burner
could be unscrewed. This operation MUST be done while the burner
is still hot as that is when the varnish between the threads is soft and
parts may be unscrewed or removed without undue force that could damage
It worked! Two hours of simmering and
the burner unscrewed easily.
The fount with flame spreader and outer wick tube removed.
The original wick is visible, hardly burned at all. While still hot I cleaned the threads and then applied a very
light coat of "Never Seez" to the threads with a
Another product that
protects and lubricates threads is "Sil-Glyde Lubricating
Compound," a silicone compound with the consistency of
toothpaste. The intended use is brake parts, trunk seals
and weather stripping on doors and windows of vehicles and is
available in auto parts stores.
The photo at right shows the burner with a new wick installed.
The wick had to be notched to match the original, shown
The Veritas 20''' burning brightly for the
first time in a century! Before burning, the wick as
saturated with kerosene, raised 1/16" above the draft tubes,
and lighted. The chimney and flame spreader were
installed and the wick allowed to burn out, thereby leveling
it evenly. The fount was then filled with Low Odor (or
Spirits, and lighted after 15 minutes. The flame was steady, no
flickering, and quite bright. There was a reason why Veritas lamps were held in such high regard - they worked, and
worked well. With a little restoration and decent care,
a good lamp like this will easily last another century.
The above illustration was an easy one because the lamp had been placed
in storage "dry," without fuel in the font, and had been kept fairly
clean over the years. That is an exception as many old lamps have
been sitting on a shelf in an attic for decades and were put away "wet"
with fuel in the font.
Another illustration of restoration by boiling. The first photo at shows a Rochester Jr. as purchased.
It was stored "wet" and was glued solidly together. The middle photo shows the lamp disassembled after simmering for an hour, with a bit of polishing to
the very top of the fount. Photo at right shows the lamp after a couple of hours of polishing with Blue Magic. Click to enlarge.
The Jr. Rochester above was now pretty, but still did not function
properly because of old varnish and fuel residue on the inside of the
lamp. The center draft tube was sticky and the inside of the wick
sleeve was coated with a hard yet gooey residue that simply clogged
If boiling a lamp in detergent was to remove remove a stuck burner and
it does not remove easily, don't force it! Move on to the
next step of boiling in citric acid as that will almost always work as
the hot citric acid bath can then work on the stuck threads without any
grease, oil or old dried fuel residue in the way. Scroll down to
see that process on the Jr. Rochester.
CITRIC ACID CLEANING
Citric acid powder is sold in the home canning
section of many hardware stores. The entire lamp - font
and burner, all the parts - were submerged in water in a large stock
pot, a tablespoon of powdered citric acid added to the water, then
the water heated until it almost boiled. The heat was then
turned off, a lid put on the stock pot, and everything soaked for an
hour. The citric acid reacts with old fuel residue and gunk by
turning it into a stiff, dark granular oxide - it is no longer a
sticky mass. And that is how you determine the progress of the
process. When you see a part start to have black splotches,
remove it from the pot and brush it off in warm soapy water.
If the black spots wash/brush off, that is enough soaking. If
not, put it back in the hot citric acid solution for another 15
The parts and pieces are removed from the hot stock pot with tongs, and
then scrubbed with a standard kitchen brush. Hard to reach areas
like between the chimney prongs can be brushed with a basting brush with
bristles at the end. That thoroughly cleans the outside of the
lamp and most of the burner parts. The draft tube and wick sleeve,
though, require careful cleaning so the wick sleeve will move over the
draft tube smoothly so when the lamp is assembled the wick will move
smoothly up and down.
If the parts are not cleaned, if tarnish and/or corrosion are not
removed or rendered into a soft coating that is easily brushed off in
hot soapy water, you were not using enough citric acid in the boiling
water solution. Add more citric acid powder and do it again.
A teaspoon of citric acid per half gallon of water can be required on
some badly tarnished lamps.
Example of citric acid bath cleaning - brass finish
At right, an 1895 P&A Royal 'GWTW'
lamp which most likely had never been polished since it was made.
The foot was almost black. There was a half inch of dust
inside the glass on the base! The flame spreader and burner
vents were so clogged that air could not pass through them.
The flash on the camera made it look better than it really was.
At far right, the parts
disassembled and ready for soaking in 200 F hot water with a
tablespoon of citric acid. Note the ring on the lower right side of
The photo above is of the ring which holds
the base of the glass after it was removed from the citric acid bath.
The oxide from corrosion was turned black.
Above, after brushing in warm soapy water
using a common kitchen soft bristle brush. The black oxide corrosion
is gone! Click on the photos to enlarge.
Above, of the parts after being washed &
brushed in hot soapy water. Compare the photo to the one above it, noting
particularly the flame spreader and burner.
The photo above shows the right side of
the font polished quickly with Mother's Chrome Polish. The difference
Above, the assembled lamp with all parts
polished. Because of the citric acid bath, polishing the parts was
very quick and easy.
Behold, a fabulous P&A Royal GWTW lamp ready
for use, as beautiful as it was when sold new by P&A in 1895
Jewelry pliers used to remove dents in the draft tubes.
Above center, a very dirty Kosmos
burner that would never burn correctly and the chimney seat is so filthy a chimney could not
sit flat for a nice burn without flickering.
the dents in the draft tube were carefully removed using little
jewelry pliers with tapered round jaws, then the burner cleaned
with a hot citric acid bath followed by cleaning the chimney seat
with Q-Tips and
a small brush.
At right, the parts for a W&W French
Garden Lamp as it was received straight from a French garden,
spider webs and dirt included. Far right, the same parts after
soaking in citric acid and scrubbing in hot, soapy water.
|At left, the same parts after being
polished with "Mother's Chrome Polish," the nickel
finish shining brightly.
At right, the finished, assembled lamp.
Click on the photos to enlarge them.
Lempereur & Bernard Brevete,
15''' Kosmos Brenner. Near right, unpolished. Far right,
after soaking in citric acid and polished. The citric acid
bath works equally as well on either nickel plating (above) or
brass lamps, as shown at right.
Below, left to right:
all parts disassembled and polished after citric acid bath and
scrubbing in hot soapy water, L&B embossed
name, flame spreader. Second row below, left to right, wick
carrier, wick carrier after a citric acid bath, wick installed by adding a tape extension and pulling
through from the bottom, and wick installed.
Update April 4, 2020 Flame_Spreader
I needed a new demonstration
project and saw this flame spreader on eBay for $5.99 delivered!
The seller was proudly selling it ''as found'' and leaving it up to
the buyer to ''finish cleaning." I was the only bidder.
At right, the same flame spreader
after 15 minutes in a hot citric acid bath and 3 minutes scrubbing
with 0000 steel wool. No damage at all and now worth far more
than $5.99 delivered.
Click on photos to enlarge them.
CLEANING THE WICK SLEEVE AND DRAFT TUBE
Some lamps have wick sleeves that hold the wick
on the inside, such as the one illustrated by the photo on the
right. This wick sleeve need only be brushed inside and out
after soaking in citric acid
and will be clean enough to use because the wick inside the sleeve
is in contact with the draft tube. Wick sleeves which fit the
draft tube and hold the wick OUTSIDE the wick sleeve like Rochester
and Miller lamps need to be
thoroughly cleaned and polished inside the sleeve.
Any dowel that will fit inside the wick sleeve can be used to clean the
inside of a wick sleeve so long as it can fit relatively snugly while
being wrapped with a piece of emery paper.
I made some tapered dowels on a wood lathe from old, broken tool
handles for cleaning the inside of wick sleeves. These tapered
dowels simply made the job easier. These two will fit inside the
wick sleeve of any lamp from #0 to #2 size.
Note the amount of dirt and grime on the sandpaper
on the cleaning dowel from the Jr. Rochester wick sleeve. The next step on this small wick sleeve
was 400 grit emery and gentle polish the inside from each end.
The photo at right shows the
inside of the Jr. Rochester wick sleeve after polishing inside with 400
grit emery paper. The polishing must be done gently, of
course, as smoothness is the desired end result, not removing a lot
The flame spreader
is shown to illustrate how clean it became after the citric acid
bath and simply brushing away the residue. The small holes in the
flame spreader can be cleared with a dental pick or
medium-size sewing needle.
To clean the small diameter draft tube
I used a popsicle stick wrapped with 200 grit emery paper.
The citric acid bath had turned the gummy residue to a stiff
granular oxide that could be sanded off instead of clogging the
emery paper with sticky residue.
Photo far right shows the polished draft tube.
Photo of finished lamp.
Another example with a larger lamp
The wick sleeve from a Miller
Dresden being cleaned inside. Note the strip of thin plastic
holding the wick grabbing prongs away from the sandpaper!
The Miller Dresden was disassembled and soaked in
hot citric acid for an hour to render the sticky residue into a hard oxide
that could be readily sanded off.
At right you can see the amount of grit and some
actual brass removed from the inside of the Dresden wick sleeve. The
sleeve was so rough inside that moving the wick on the draft tube was almost
I cut away half the diameter of a 1 1/2"
plastic tube, lined it with 200 grit emery, and sanded the draft
tube on the Miller Dresden with vertical strokes of the sandpaper
tool. The grime and some brass from
roughness is shown on the emery paper.
|At left, the Miller Dresden wick sleeve
At right, the restored, assembled lamp.
The wick sleeve now slides freely on the center draft tube!
TEST THE FONT FOR INTEGRITY
It is an excellent idea to fill the font with fuel for the first
time with the lamp in a baking dish or bucket for several hours,
with a paper towel under the lamp, to check for leaks in the font.
If there is a leak it is better to discover it at this point and
fix it before proceeding, as a leaking lamp on an expensive table
is best avoided.
REPAIRING THE FONT
(See more details in "Lamp
It is not uncommon to find pinholes in the base of
the fuel tank on century-old fuel fonts. First empty the font. Pick at the holes with a stout sewing needle to clean
debris from the holes, remove any oil from the metal with acetone on
apply a thin layer of J-B KwikWeld epoxy. In 10 minutes
the leak is sealed. The color of J-B KwikWeld is dark
grey, so it will show if used on the outside of copper fonts.
A minor pinhole leak does not show much darkness, however, and is
far better than a leak! J-B KwikWeld can also be used to seal
cracks in drop-in fonts IF the stress crack is pressed inward
so the finished result does not result in a wider font.
WICK INSTALLATION - LOOK AT ALL THE
BURNER PARTS FOR DAMAGE
Victorian Era lamps were made for relatively easy wick installation as
new - a century ago. Any damage or corrosion occurring in the past
century can make wick installation very difficult. Now that you
have all the parts disassembled they can be examined carefully for any
damage that could inhibit wick installation. Some lamps, such as
the Success, were made to very close tolerances and even slight damage
can make wick installation a real challenge. Click on a photo below to
|Success draft tube after polishing.
You can see where corrosion was removed. The wick must be able to
slide easily over the draft tube to adjust the flame height.
|The top right side edge of the wick
sleeve was bent inward. The wick sleeve fits over the draft tube so
the bend was intruding into space for the wick to fit and slide
|The outer wick tube was cut with a
tubing cutter, and as the cutter blade wheel is cutting on the
outside of the tube it leaves a sharp indent on the inside that can
snag a wick. In the photo above the inside edge has been sanded
|Above is a photo of the wick
installed in the wick sleeve and a 1 inch diameter dowel cut from an
old broom inserted up through the wick to smooth out any wrinkles.
The wick then slides easily over the draft tube.
Once the lamp is restored as shown above, it is ready to be polished and
prepared for lighting following the directions listed the
CARE and WICKING of CENTER DRAFT LAMPS page.
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Information on lamps:
Aladdin Lamp History
Aladdin Lamp Wicks & Chimneys,
Aladdin - Exploded burner views
Lamp Repair & projects
Center Draft Kerosene Lamps
(Photos, information and history, etc)
Lamp manufacturers and brand names
Miller Lamps - a photo album
restored center draft lamps
USE, CARE and WICKING of CENTER DRAFT LAMPS
Early American Metal Font & Specialty Lamps
Flame Spreaders and
- Vulcan, Imperial, Veritas,
Belgian, Hinks, Messenger's, Young's Court, etc.
Articles by Alex Marrack:
Registered Design Numbers For British Lamps
GERMAN PATENT LETTER CLUES - DRPs AND DRGMs, 1877 to 1945
Site Index for all things Perfection
Links to web sites for parts,
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Alphabetical list of most kerosene heaters and the proper wick,
& cart checkout.
List by wick number and the heaters that fit them. (A
helpful guide for buying on eBay)
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